Setup with SQLite

Table of Contents

  1. Quick Start
  2. Options
    1. client
    2. trace
    3. connectionLimit
    4. busyTimeout
  3. Using SQLCipher

Quick Start

Setting up Leoric with SQLite is easy as follows:

const Realm = require('leoric');
const realm = new Realm({
  dialect: 'sqlite',
  database: 'database/development.sqlite3',
  models: 'app/models',
await realm.connect();

Leoric uses mapbox/node-sqlite3 as the default client to access SQLite database, hence both leoric and sqlite3 need to be added as dependencies:

diff --git a/package.json b/package.json
index cf91c34..7ae144d 100644
--- a/package.json
+++ b/package.json
@@ -45,6 +45,8 @@
   "dependencies": {
+    "leoric": "^1.10.0",
+    "sqlite3": "^5.0.2",



The client used to access SQLite database can be customized with client. For example, if the database is encrypted with sqlcipher and @journeyapps/sqlcipher is the preferred client:

const realm = new Realm({
  client: '@journeyapps/sqlcipher',
  dialect: 'sqlite',
  database: 'database/development.sqlite3',
  models: 'app/models',

Remember to add the customized client as dependencies. Currently both sqlite3 and @journeyapps/sqlcipher are tested with Leoric in our continuous integration tests.


To better generate the stack trace when error occurs while querying database, client.verbose() is called by default. This helper method is provided by sqlite3 and has a slight performance penalty because each time a query is performed, there is a new Error() to capture the stack trace before the asynchronous call.

  1) => SQLite driver.query()
       should support async stack trace:
     Error: SQLITE_ERROR: no such table: missing
  --> in Database#all('SELECT * FROM missing', undefined, [Function: Leoric_all])
      at /Users/nil/Projects/cyjake/leoric/src/drivers/sqlite/connection.js:48:21
      at new Promise (<anonymous>)
      at Connection.all (src/drivers/sqlite/connection.js:47:12)
      at Connection.query (src/drivers/sqlite/connection.js:39:33)
      at SqliteDriver.query (src/drivers/sqlite/index.js:46:33)
      at async Context.<anonymous> (test/unit/drivers/sqlite/index.test.js:181:7)

For more detail about the result and the related code, see !175.

This behavior can be turned off by setting trace to false.


Connection pool for SQLite is supported as well, which is turned on by default with connectionLimit set to 10.

Accessing SQLite database with multiple read/write connections (or should we say, file handles?) might cause random SQLITE_BUSY errors because there is no server to resolve database or table lock. To keep from situations like this, we can either turn off multiple connections by setting connectionLimit to 1, or try telling the client to wait a little longer with bigger busyTimeout.

const realm = new Realm({
  dialect: 'sqlite',
  database: 'database/development.sqlite3',
  models: 'app/models',
  connectionLimit: 1,


The default busyTimeout is set to 30000 in milliseconds.

const realm = new Realm({
  dialect: 'sqlite',
  database: 'database/development.sqlite3',
  models: 'app/models',
  busyTimeout: 30000,

For more information about SQLITE_BUSY:

Using SQLCipher

The major different between SQLCipher and vanilla SQLite is the former one will encrypt the database file with a key. The key needs to be set before any queries are performed, otherwise SQLCipher won’t be able to decrypt the database file and an error with message like SQLITE_ERROR: file is not a database gets thrown.

To make sure the key is set at the first place, regardless of the connection limit settings, we can listen on the connection event emitted from realm.driver.pool:

realm.driver.pool.on('connection', function(connection) {
  connection.query('PRAGMA key = "Riddikulus!"');